1. Rejecting deficit explanations for learners’ learning. Which means that:

  • Deficit explanations are not used to explain learners’ difficulties
  • Agentic talk is clearly articulated, and learners are encouraged as they succeed
  • Errors and mistakes are seen as being opportunities to learn, not insurmountable problems
  • Learners’ language, culture and heritage are seen as assets and not as hindrances to learning
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